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Lent: Why the Christian Must Deny Himself | Brother Austin G. Murphy, O.S.B. | IgnatiusInsight.com
We still ask ourselves as Ash Wednesday approaches, "What am I doing
for Lent? What am I giving up for Lent?" We can be grateful that the customs
of giving up something for Lent and abstaining from meat on Fridays during
Lent have survived in our secular society. But, unfortunately, it is doubtful
that many practice them with understanding. Many perform them in good faith
and with a vague sense of their value, and this is commendable. But if these
acts of self-denial were better understood, they could be practiced with
greater profit. Otherwise, they run the risk of falling out of use.
A greater understanding of the practice of self-denial would naturally benefit
those who customarily exercise it during Lent. Better comprehension of self-denial
would also positively affect the way Christians live throughout the
year. The importance of self-denial can be seen if we look specifically
at fasting and use it as an example of self-denial in general. Indeed, fasting,
for those who can practice it, is a crucial part of voluntary self-denial.
But since we live in a consumerist society, where self-indulgence rather
than self-denial is the rule, any suggestion to fast will sound strange
to many ears. It is bound to arouse the questions: Why is fasting important?
Why must a Christian practice it? Using these questions as a framework,
we can construct one explanation, among many possible ones, of the importance
To answer the question "Why must the Christian fast?" we should first note
that fasting, in itself, is neither good nor bad, but is morally neutral.
But fasting is good insofar as it achieves a good end. Its value lies in
it being an effective means for attaining greater virtue. And because it
is a means for gaining virtue and every Christian ought to be striving
to grow in virtuethere is good reason to fast.
Some people point out that fasting is not the most important thing and,
therefore, they do not need to worry about it. Such reasoning displays a
misunderstanding of our situation. But, since the excuse is common enough,
some comments to refute it are worthwhile.
Doing Small Things Well
First, while it is true that fasting is not the most important thing in
the world, this does not make fasting irrelevant or unimportant. There are,
certainly, more urgent things to abstain from than food or drink, such as
maliciousness, backbiting, grumbling, etc. But a person is mistaken to conclude
that he therefore does not need to fast. He should not believe that he can
ignore fasting and instead abstain in more important matters. Rather, fasting
and avoiding those other vices go hand in hand. Fasting must accompany efforts
to abstain in greater matters. For one thing, fasting teaches a person how
to abstain in the first place.
Moreover, it is presumptuous for a person to try to practice the greater
virtues without first paying attention to the smaller ones. As Our Lord
says, "He who is faithful in a very little is faithful also in much" 
and so can be trusted with greater things. Therefore, if a person wants
to be able to abstain in greater matters he must not neglect to abstain
in smaller matters, such as through fasting.
Finally, there is a subtle form of pride present in the person who says
that because something is not very important, he does not need to do it.
Whoever makes such a claim implies that he does only important things. But
the average person is rarely called to do very important things. Accordingly,
each person is more likely to be judged on how he did the little, everyday
things. Even when, rarely, a person is called to do a great work, how often
does he fall short? All the more reason, then, for a person to make sure
that he at least does the small things well. Furthermore, if he truly loves
the Lord, he will gladly do anythingbig or smallfor him. So,
in the end, saying that fasting is not the most important thing is not a
good excuse for avoiding it.
What, then, is the reason for fasting? To answer this let us first clarify
what fasting entails. It involves more than the occasional fast, such as
on Good Friday. To be effective, fasting requires disciplined eating habits
all the time. There are certainly days when a person should make a greater
effort at abstaining from food and drink. These are what we usually consider
days of fasting and they must be practiced regularly. But, still, there
are never days when a person is allowed to abandon all restraint. A person
must always practice some restraint over his appetites or those periodic
days of fasting arc valueless. Always keeping a check on his desires, a
person develops good habits, which foster constancy in his interior life.
So, in addition to practicing days of fasting on a regular basis, a person
should continuously restrain his desires, such as those that incline him
to eat too much, to be too concerned with what he eats, or to eat too often.
We might, then speak of the discipline of fasting in order to avoid the
impression that fasting is sporadic. The operative principle behind the
discipline of fasting is simple: to limit yourself to only what is necessary
for your physical and psychological healthno more, no less. St. Augustine
puts it concisely when he teaches: "As far as your health allows, keep your
bodily appetites in check by fasting and abstinence from food and drink."
 So, fasting is meant only to keep a person's unnecessary wants in check.
A person is not nor is he permittedto deny himself what is necessary
for his health. The discipline of fasting instead asks a person to check
his desires for what is superfluous and not necessary.
Realizing True Well-being
Consequently, fasting should not threaten a person's health. And there is
no foundation for believing that fasting is somehow motivated by anti-body
sentiments. Fasting actually does good for the body by helping it realize
its well-being. The body needs to be in conformity with the spirit and this
requires such disciplines as fasting. In this way, the body is like a child.
Children would never realize their true well-being if their parents never
told them "no," but gave in to every one of their desires. In the same way,
if a person never says "no" to his bodily desires, his body will never realize
its true well-being. That is, the body needs such discipline to be brought
into conformity with the spirit. For otherwise, it cannot share in the spiritual
blessings of Christ.
This makes perfect sense when we consider that the human person is not just
a soul, but is matter as well. A persons body, too, is to be renewed
in Christ. Fasting is one way that a person brings about a harmony between
body and soul, so that being made whole he can be one with Christ.
The Christian belief that the body is intimately united to the soul should
also make a person suspicious of the opinion that fasting is merely external.
External acts stem from the desires of the heart within, as Our Lord says
in the Gospel.  So, a person's external acts are linked to his interior
desires. The external act of abstaining from food and drink, therefore,
clearly affects a person internally. It does not permit his desires within
to reach fulfillment. Thus fasting has the ability to keep interior desires
in check, which is important for improving a person's interior life.
It is true, of course, that a person should be more vigilant over his interior
life than over his external actions. He must be attentive to interior motives,
desires, intentions, to make sure that his fasting is affecting his interior
life as it oughtand not giving rise to pride, anger, or impatience.
In fact, only by considering the interior self, and how fasting can affect
it, does one see the high value of fasting. If someone looks only at the
external act of eating, and does not consider the underlying internal desires
of the heart, then the value of fasting cannot be seen. For, clearly, there
is nothing wrong with the very act of eating. Nor do the enjoyments of food
and the pleasures of eating, as such, harm a person. The joys and comforts
of eating are good. Like all created goods, they testify to the goodness
of God, who made them. Therefore, the enjoyment of eating and drinking manifests
the goodness of God. A person ought to see God's goodness in the joys of
these things, and give God thanks for them.  The enjoyment of food can
then actually help lift the mind and heart to God. 
But by lifting a person's gaze to God, created goods point beyond themselves,
to greater joys. Consequently, he who truly enjoys God's goodness in created
things, such as food and drink, will not remain attached to them. Rather,
he will go beyond them, readily giving them up, in order to enjoy the higher
things, which St. Paul says we must seek. 
Seek What Is Better
This might lead some to ask: If the enjoyment of eating does me no harm,
and can in fact manifest God's goodness, why sacrifice this joy by fasting?
That is, why check my unnecessary desires for what is enjoyable? After all,
there is nothing wrong with enjoying food. Why, then, if I enjoy having
a snack, or eating fine foods, sacrifice these things? Again, they are not
bad or sinful.
The answer is: Because it is better. Having a tasty meal prepared just to
my liking is good, but it is better to sacrifice such things. Showing why
it is better to fast than to neglect fasting will provide the reason why
a Christian is expected to fast.
A Christian must be seeking what is better, and not merely trying to avoid
what is bad. This is the only way to live a life of continual conversion,
to which we are committed by baptism. The Christian must face decisions
with the question: "What is the better thing for me to do?" He must not,
when he has a decision to make, approach what he is inclined to do with
the justification: "Well, there is nothing wrong with doing it." If that
is his approach, then he is not genuinely seeking improvement in his life.
Spiritual progress becomes impossible.
Ongoing conversion, to which, again, the Christian must be dedicated, involves
going from good to better. This conversion is unreachable for him who in
his life refuses to give up the lesser goods in order to attain greater
goods. Due to fallen human nature, every person is prone to be complacent.
Each of us is reluctant to change his ways. But clearly, if a person has
not yet reached perfection, there are certainly greater goods for him to
realize. Fasting, in many ways, is simply the choice to give up lesser goods
for greater ones, to abstain from the joys of food and drink in order to
attain greater joys from God. It seeks for more. If a person ever stops
seeking for more, then he has stopped seeking God.
Why is it better to fast than not to fast? Again, we said that the enjoyment
of food and drink is good. Enjoying food is not the problem. Fasting does
not tell a person not to enjoy eatingI think this is impossibleas
much as it says not to seek the enjoyment of eating. A person may take the
joys of food as they come, and be grateful for them: but he should not pursue
True, there are legitimate occasions, such as when entertaining guests,
where especially enjoyable foods are procured. But this is done for the
sake of hospitality and for lifting up the heart and mind to God in thanksgiving.
The joys of food and drink are not sought, consequently, for their own sake
but for God's glory. Thus, the person is not really seeking the joys of
eating and drinking, as such: he uses them only to pass beyond them to God.
Hence, he who uses the joys of eating and drinking rightly will readily
give them up. Because fasting is better than not fasting, he will deny himself
these joys regularly. "Looking to the reward,"  moreover, he will not
often make the excuse that hospitality, or the "need" to celebrate, requires
that he allow himself enjoyable foods. In truth, it is more often the case
that self-denial and restraint are called for. 
Part Two of "Lent: Why the Christian Must Deny Himself."
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