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Rendered Imperfectly: A Review-Commentary of Jason Berry's Render Unto Rome | Reverend Brian Van Hove, S.J. | August 8, 2011 | Ignatius Insight

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Render Unto Rome: The Secret Life of Money in the Catholic Church by Jason Berry
New York: Crown Publishers, 2011
Pp. 420, including Notes and Index
ISBN-978-0-385-53132-0; eISBN- 978-0-385-53133-7

Like the Curate's Egg, this book is good in parts. When Jason Berry is good, he is very good. And when he is bad, he is quite bad. One presumes the author's lawyers approved both good and bad. First, let us consider selections from the bad.

Berry identifies himself with the "nursing-home-flower-children" of the church with over-worn expressions such as "pray, pay and obey." (pages 9, 279, and elsewhere) One senses he would blithely repeat all the liberal follies of the Episcopal Church (PECUSA) which once made it the fastest dying religious institution in America. [1] He is definitely not an advocate of the hermeneutic of continuity, but rather that of rupture. Let Berry spare us the rhetoric of the Sixties generation, revived recently by The American Church Council. Let a younger John Paul II Generation blossom.

Render Unto Rome is the final installment of what he terms an investigative trilogy begun in 1985. (page 17) Its title echoes the work of Archbishop Charles Chaput, Render Unto Caesar: Serving the Nation by Living our Catholic Beliefs in Political Life.[i] We will wait for the decision of history to prune its merits. For now, here are highlights.

Who are the heroes and who are the villains in this book? Generally, the heroes are liberal nuns, select lay people and ex-priests. [2] We are given homey vignettes of their personal lives. Who are the villains? In general, they are corrupt and incompetent cardinals and bishops and their clerical cohorts. This must be said at the outset. Berry wants "reform from below" in a naīve way. There is no guarantee that liberal nuns (whose assets are secret), lay people and ex-priests would do a better job in a Fallen World than Cardinal Angelo Sodano or Cardinal Franc Rodé, to name but two of those he presents as his villains. [3] The Berry model of reform is unoriginal, as unoriginal as Congregationalism or Presbyterianism, and in a book that is designed to illuminate its readers with respect to "money," such vignettes (however interesting to certain religious subcultures) seem entirely gratuitous.

On pages 94 and 107 the author writes the full "F word" which even in our day is inappropriate. He uses profanities and vulgarities freely in several places. (examples on pages 198, 254, 259) To what avail? [4]

The American cult of the informal is just that ‒ cultishness. It is a technique of disrespect. Even if the compulsive and self-conscious use of nicknames is cultural since the Sixties, it is still distasteful to many of us. Demeaning even guilty hierarchs for the sake of demeaning them is unconvincing and disedifying.

On page 221 the author delights in referring to the deceased Auxiliary Bishop of Baltimore as "Frank," [5] and he calls Cardinal Bernardin "Joe" (page 7) ‒ thus one supposes Berry would also like to call the pope "Joe" since in this book there is a constant subtext of antipapalism as in the following two selected quotations:
But Ratzinger could not have tabled a case as grave as Maciel's without the approval of John Paul. The pope is the pope; they had a standing Friday lunch. In what now seems face-saving, Ratzinger told a Mexican bishop that an investigation of Maciel might not be "prudent," as he had attracted so many men to the priesthood. How tepid a rationale from the law-and-order prefect who had waged intellectual war against Leonardo Boff, Hans Küng, and Charles Curran: humiliate prolific theologians, but look the other way when it was time to condemn a pedophile. [6]

Cardinal Ratzinger punished theologians who embraced the complexities of conscience in the real lives of People of God: Charles Curran on birth control, Hans Küng on papal infallibility, Leonardo Boff on poverty as the prism of liberation theology, among other persecuted intellectuals. In defining moral truth as the province of the Vatican, Ratzinger wanted obedience ‒ "definitive assent" ‒ to the magisterium, or teaching office of his congregation. Curia comes from the Latin co+vir ‒ men among men. "The freedom that celibacy was supposed to give for selfless action is snuffed out at the most basic level when freedom of discussion is outlawed," Garry Wills has written. A larger anxiety turned on whether the church had "gone too far" in its post-Vatican II encounter with a world that saw spaceships sail to the moon. Doctrinaire conservatives thrilled to the spectacle of John Paul and Ratzinger squelching "dissent," but fell silent on Vatican hypocrisy that protected the guiltiest bishops in the abuse crisis, and Father Maciel. [7]
The author obsessively mocks ecclesiastical protocols, especially Roman ways, [8] as if sneering and ridicule help his thesis about money. Elevating discourtesy to the level of virtue is unnecessary and detracts from the author's purpose.

Sarcasm does not augment substance. Since when is scoffing a virtue? Contempt for the church alienates the potential readership who, despite Berry's long-time affiliation with The National Catholic Reporter, [9] might otherwise be disposed to listen to his concerns about financial (and other forms of) corruption in the Church. [10]

There is a factual error on page 98 when he writes, "Ah. Did they call him 'Your Grace' back in Missouri?" As a matter of record: in St. Louis, Missouri, those who knew him best and loved him most did address the archbishop, now Cardinal Raymond Leo Burke, as "Your Grace."

Berry's preoccupation with ecclesiastical "secrecy" [11] fails to make a distinction between it and "confidentiality" which is needed in professional life. After Vatican II, the collapse of all confidentiality was one of the first signs of decay in the Church. Secrecy ‒ even worse a pathological "culture of secrecy"‒ may be crooked and used for malicious purposes, but not all secrets are bad as any ethician would acknowledge. And to whom should "transparency" be shown? To American activist organizations? To proper civil and ecclesiastical authority? The multi-layered secrecy of the Legionaries of Christ and Regnum Christi is not the confidentiality and internal forum of the authentic and orthodox Church.

The thesis of Render Unto Rome is simply "a review of the financial impact of the clergy abuse litigation." (page 328) He refuses to abandon political stock phrases that plague discussions of the abuse crisis ‒ pedophilia and pederasty are not committed by homosexuals. The closest Berry comes to using the term "homosexual" is in regard to Cardinal Hans Hermann Gröer's "homoerotic" acts. The abuse litigation is therefore not about homosexual clergy. [12] This question is not pursued by Jason Berry who says that "the priesthood has also acquired a vast gay subculture." (Page 5)

So in a book about money, who needs a theologian? Among many possibilities, Berry cites two theologians, Hans Küng and Leonardo Boff, though on page 405 he does name a Liberal Protestant, Harvey Cox. [13] No moral theologians except Charles Curran (page 279) are listed, [14] even though the topic is money which is a perennial moral matter.

Berry uses Protestant church terminology when supposedly he is a Catholic writing about Catholic matters. Catholics call the Communion bread a "host" yet he calls it a "wafer." (page 134) He speaks of "taking Communion" whereas Catholics "receive Communion." (page 34) The people do not grab but instead receive the heavenly gifts. Why this protestantization? Is that what Catholic progressivism really is, just protestantizing?

If the author's pick of theologians is thin, it worsens when he cites historians to document certain ideas. On page 43 he quotes James Carroll. Carroll is a popularizer akin to the "Berrigan brothers" and is much more the novelist-journalist than a formal academic historian in the tradition of Sir Steven Runciman, Hubert Jedin or Arnold J. Toynbee. Eamon Duffy is lightly used (page 365) along with Gertrude Himmelfarb. (page 369 n. 43) Jean A. Meyer is admirably referred to on page 173. He mentions George Weigel on page 104 but hardly relies upon him. [15] Berry is notable for whom he relies upon ‒ and upon whom he conspicuously refuses to rely upon or even suggest by name. In the acknowledgements he thanks professionals such as John Tutino and Marcus Smith for their advice. (page 405)

Like himself, Berry's sources for his narrative are one-sidedly polemical journalists who come from the "Respectable Left" or the "Center-Left" ‒ Thomas J. Reese, Garry Wills and John L. Allen, Jr. [16] Endorsing his book on the dust jacket is Joan Chittister, OSB ‒ more Far Left than any others. [17] (Chittister is as much a liability on the dust jacket as would be Randy Engel. People will reject a book just by looking at its endorsements.) One notes how many names of serious Catholic writers/ journalists are absent, presumably for ideological reasons. Their input and credentials would contribute to the balance the work needs to make it convincing to more Catholics. The thesis is a timely one, but the argumentation needs refinement and strengthening.

On the relationship between the Jews and the papacy, Berry too narrowly depends upon David I. Kertzer. [18] He balances this one-sidedness a bit with David Dalin and John Rychlak. Nowhere are cited Joseph Bottum, Sir Martin Gilbert, Paul Johnson, Giacomo Martina or Eric Silver who have written about Catholic-Jewish themes. [19]

Berry dedicates some pages to the Jewish "ghetto" in Rome and elsewhere. He does not offer the simple observation of an erudite Jewish friend who says that the Jewish community preferred an entity of its own under Jewish sway where its religious law was in force. Calling it a "ghetto" is pejorative to American ears, and Berry might have supplemented his explanation by a deepened discussion of Jewish law even in a theocracy like the Papal States. (Another Jewish friend said to me, "Put two Jews in a room ‒ get three opinions." In other words, plenty of Jews would be willing to argue with Kertzer.) The review should not ignore the original reference to Pope Pius' refusal to speak against the Nazis at the request of the Jewish representative in Rome at the time because the effect would be considered more devastating than what was already taking place.

Jason Berry needs to inform his readers that even in contested matters there are at least two sides to everything. Paul Johnson describes the Catholic Church in Europe in the eighteenth century as "comatose" [The History of Christianity, p. 354]. The matter of the Jewish ghetto in the City of Rome is barely a footnote in the narrative of the Church's decadence and aberrations in that age, despite Benedict XIV, the "Enlightenment pope."

An illustration is the over-researched item of the Jewish child taken from his parents in Bologna to Rome during the administration of Pius IX. It embarrassed the French emperor then. Still, imposing our post-Enlightenment mentality on the past hinders us from understanding and is not the way to do things. Since the Great Western Schism jurisprudence so dominated the church that a legalistic culture developed which added a burden of replacement for people who believed in absolute truths. A baptized child was in a different legal category; and even if that baptism were administered by stealth, the Augustinian sacramental theology of the "branding iron" was in place and the law was the law. There were no pogroms in the Papal States or in Rome. Generally, the popes down through the ages protected Jews, which explains that why when they were expelled from Spain many Jews resettled in Rome. The child grew up and died at a ripe old age in Belgium in 1940. David I. Kertzer's The Kidnapping of Edgardo Mortara renewed interest in the case, and Jason Berry interviewed Kertzer by telephone. [20] (page 368, n. 16) For us readers, of course, telephone conversations are unverifiable sources.

Still, the event is treated unsympathetically in connection with the history of the Peter's Pence collection. That history could have been traced sufficiently without digressing into the Mortara incident which seems only an occasion for defaming and discrediting Pope Pius IX. The author would do well to stick to the topic—money—and save his animadversions regarding Catholic-Jewish relations for a separate study. [21] Is his purpose to assert that the institution of the papacy, the oldest institution in the Western world, has always been corrupt when it comes to money and sex? If so, then he sets up the current crisis in terms that are just as hopeless as the older history he presents and pretends to interpret. [22]

The author tells his story through the actions and ruminations of little heroes and heroines. This is a distraction. We are encouraged to see reality through their eyes — a way for him to say that this is the age of the laity and to purvey his model of shared governance ‒ his congregationalist or presbyterian ecclesiology or "governance from below." We hear of Rosie Piper, Sister Christine Schenk (who says on page 16: "As crazy as the Vatican monarchical system can be with its top-down political model, the Catholic network of genuine service providers has a global reach to the needy, a real record of doing good in the world."), Mari Beth Borré (who rejects organized religion, page 20) and Peter Borré. And occasionally we hear of a diocesan priest-activist (often portrayed in righteous conflict with his bishop).

Now for the good parts of the Curate's Egg. Here are three of them.

Since 1990 at least 1,800 parishes have closed in the United States. [23] Since Jason Berry published Render Unto Rome, Bishop Richard Lennon of Cleveland asked for an Apostolic Visitation to review his plan to close fifty Catholic parishes in the Cleveland diocese. [24]

Most observers of the "abuse crisis" followed the wave of exposures from East to West, that is, from Boston to Los Angeles. [25] But many of us did not notice Cleveland on the way. Jason Berry dedicates several pages of research to the case of Cleveland, Ohio.

What interests many is that a prominent layman went to prison for financial corruption. Joseph N. Smith was the chief financial officer of the diocese. He was illegally overpaid and through an elaborate maze of discussions, we learn that he "earned" $ 750,000 in off-the-books kickbacks. His legal bills when he got caught were one million dollars. [26] Smith went to jail, and it is a long story. The book may be worth reading for this episode alone because Cleveland might have been forgotten if Mr. Berry had not traced it. It is painful to think that ethnic Cleveland, replete with "the widow's mite," can be described thus:

"Bishop Pilla, Father Wright, Joe Smith, they were all stealing," Charlie Feliciano told the New York Times. "It was a corporate culture that was corrupt at almost all the top levels." Disappointed that Pilla and Wright escaped indictment, Feliciano took comfort that his thwarted civil case of defrauding a religious charity would be distilled into a federal criminal proceeding. [27]

Of course selling off parish churches and other ecclesiastical property including schools is suspect as a gimmick for getting large sums needed when so much money was lost or just disappeared.

Cleveland may be closer to home for some of us, but what is closest to home for all of us is local parish embezzlement. Berry studies this problem and says that "As the reports on bankruptcy filings and the impact of civil litigation roll across the media screens, people wonder how a church so powerful could lose nearly $4 billion (embezzlements included) since 1965." [28] A man named Michael W. Ryan is said to have the answers to a better accounting method for parishes, but he is not regarded. [29] Instead of the New Pentecost promised by Vatican II, we got instead a Grand Violation of the Seventh Commandment.

The most important service rendered to humanity by Jason Berry is his research on Marcial Maciel and the Legion of Christ. The lay branch is named Regnum Christi. Berry says on page 159 "The greatest fund-raiser of the modern church, Maciel used religion to make money, buying protection at the Vatican lest his secret life be exposed. For most of his life, it worked." [30]

Berry produced an earlier work "Vows of Silence" (2004, 2008) when such Catholic stalwarts as Richard John Neuhaus, George Weigel [31] and Benedict Groeschel were still defending Marcial Maciel and the Legion. Fortunately, Monsignor Charles Scicluna of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and Pope Benedict XVI had the truth and as soon as Pope John Paul II died that truth began to emerge.

Curial cardinals took bribes from Maciel and his Legion which is a counterfeit version of the Jesuits. Legionary priests and seminarians became experts at fleecing the biggest donors and their external show of "cassocks-collars-crewcuts-and cufflinks" fooled too many young men into joining them in earnest. In the 1980s many Legionaries, before their Nuestro Padre got caught, openly said, "We will take over the Church." Even when young men leave the Legion, their brains are never the same due to the cultish ways which passed as "formation." The criminal-pathological atmosphere of secrecy has nothing to do with the Catholic moral tradition of confidentiality or the internal forum. In fact, during Legionary formation, there was no distinction made between the external and internal forum.

The investigation of the Legion is still in process. What a pity Jason Berry did not restrict himself to what may be the most significant crisis in the Catholic Church since the French Revolution, if only because of the amount of money involved in this monstrous scam, which is midway between a cult and a business. The ramifications of this scandal are too intricate to dissect here. But were it not for Jason Berry, we would still be in the dark.

If for no other reason, buy this book and read the chapters which discuss the Legionaries of Christ. This is the best part of the Curate's Egg.


[i] New York: The Crown Publishing Group, A Division of Random House, Inc., Doubleday Religion; 1 edition (August 12, 2008). ISBN-10: 0385522282; ISBN-13: 978-0385522281.

[1] On page 219 the author cites approvingly the Anglican Church's ordaining women. "As a female priesthood emerged in the Anglican Church, John Paul in 1994 issued Ordinatio Sacerdotalis, a letter forbidding women's ordination." Jason Berry is free to become an Anglican ‒ he seems to have forgotten the Catholic definition of a sacrament that it is "an outward sign instituted by Christ to give grace." That is why the Catholic Church cannot change the received sacramental signs. Masculinity is a non-negotiable component of the sign of Orders.

[2] Among them are Eugene Kennedy and Richard Sipe. Kennedy has a particularly negative view of religious authority and reduces to "men [who] use power against other men to destroy their masculine potency...." See Berry, page 280.

[3] Perhaps surprisingly, +Rembert Weakland, OSB is also a villain even though ideologically sympathetic to those in Berry's "N.C.R. camp." Note page 362, n. 10. There Berry says "Weakland's account of the legal settlement with Paul Marcoux ‒ whom I interviewed as part of the ABC News investigation ‒ is a study in self-pity, riddled with inaccuracies."

[4] While on the subject of language, the overused word "pivotal" is an annoyance. (see some examples on pages 16, 97, 231, 241, 271, 354) The split infinitive is an infelicity ‒ on page 260 we find this sentence: "Kushner chopped like a butcher on Jukic's failure to file income taxes, the bypassed CPA-ethics test, his role as a cooperative witness hoping to not get nailed." The name Genevieve S. Kineke is consistently misspelled as "Genvieve" including on page 413 of the index. On the other hand, it is laudable that he chose "toward" and not "towards" on page 218.

[5] And to Cardinal Law as "Bernie," (pages 70, 72, 146, 153) to Bishop Lennon as "Dick," (page 86) to Cardinal Egan as "Ed," (page 199) to Archbishop Pilla as "Tony" (page 204 and often thereafter) to Bishop Griffin as "Jim" (page 237) and to Bishop Quinn as "Jimmy." (page 213, 215) It was cool when Cardinal O'Malley wanted to be called "Archbishop Seán" upon his arrival in Boston. (page 96).

[6] Page 186. Joseph Ratzinger was already a martyr when he was elected pope — the ideologically-driven media sided with the dissenting theologians who loved their celebrity status at the expense of "Der Panzer Kardinal."

[7] Page 279. Berry would make of Catholicism a "religion of the professors" such as we have with the heirs of Doctor Calvin and Doctor Luther. He exhibits a defective understanding of "magisterium" which is not subordinate to scholarship in the Catholic tradition. (esp. page 219) See Symposium on the Magisterium: A Positive Statement by John J. O'Rourke and S. Thomas Greenburg (Editors) (Boston, 1978).

[8] Europeans have formal social customs and Americans do not. Such is not better or worse; it is just different. Berry goes to great length to mock the formal courtesies of the Vatican (see esp. pages 325-328) and to show how anyone, even Americans, can manipulate those courtesies to obtain the goals of self-appointed reformers.

[9] Labeled "an independent weekly" by Mr. Berry, the National Catholic Reporter has a long- standing reputation as an organ of dissent against the Catholic doctrinal magisterium The Reporter was condemned by Bishop Charles H. Helmsing of Kansas City in Missouri after it went "independent" in 1964. "Independent" is code language for dissent.

[10] Berry implicitly and explicitly endorses organizations such as BishopAccountability.org (pages 10, 11), FutureChurch.org (finally on page 217 we learn that FutureChurch strives to abolish priestly celibacy and to ordain women), Survivors Network of those Abused by Priests (SNAP) (pages 152, 289-290), Endangered Catholics (page 271), We Are Church (page 163) and Voice of the Faithful (VOTF) (pages 82, 92) each presented with no serious introduction to these groups for the naďve reader of this book ‒ no cautions, no warnings, no comment nor criticism. (See esp. page 152 where three of these groups criticize Cardinal O'Malley.) How is the reader to know if these particular associations are faithful to the magisterium and orthodox in faith and morals? Are they radicals in process of disaffiliation from the True Faith? Are they just like the Knights of Columbus or the Legion of Decency or the Apostleship of Prayer? Are they like Valley Interfaith in Texas which uses the methods of Saul D. Alinsky found in his Rules for Radicals? Berry owes it to Catholic readers to explain why activist organizations are desirable, if they are desirable, and above all who finances them (since he is writing about money). Most of all do not readers have a right to be told about the doctrinal positions these groups embrace, especially when the concept of the revisionist "parallel church" is a danger? Talking about money scandals is one thing, but talking about women's "ordination" or priestly celibacy or contraception within sacramental marriage or homosexual politics is quite another. Jason Berry fruitlessly connects celibacy with his thesis on the management of money ‒ [unionized lay employees demanding ever higher salaries are irremovable and when ensconced can treat the priest as their hireling ‒ so much for replacing celibate priests with lay pastoral associates ‒ an expensive yoke Berry does not acknowledge]: "The celibacy law, which any pope could make optional, has become an expensive yoke on the church." (p. 5) He is right that if priestly celibacy is merely an archaic legality, then it should be abolished, which means that ultimately it MUST be doctrinal, especially for nuptial theology about which he seems blissfully innocent. But with such claims he wins no friends among the orthodox. Any pope could also authorize the ordination right now of simplex priests who would not need to go to a seminary. Does Berry really want the Episcopal Church which has "more clergy than people?" In June 2011 an Austrian initiative was perhaps more honest in its self-designation: Aufruf zum Ungehorsam or Call to Disobedience. The functionalist view of Holy Orders would finally permit vending machines to dispense sacraments ‒ can Mr. Berry follow his own logic to its conclusion? See Donald J. Keefe, S.J. Covenantal Theology, two volumes (Lanham, MD: The University Press of America, 1991); revised 1996 as Covenantal Theology: The Eucharistic Order of History. Two Volumes in One (ISBN: 0891416056 / 0-89141-605-6). Volume three in preparation 2011. Also Joyce A. Little, "The New Evangelization and Gender: the Remystification of the Body" in "Communio: International Catholic Review" vol. 21, n. 4 (Winter 1994): 776-799.

[11] Page 4. See also page 351.

[12] See J. Paul Lennon, R.J. Neuhaus Duped by the Legion of Christ (Createspace, 2010): "Let me begin by saying that I agree with you that pedophilia is not a result of celibacy and that marriage does not solve pedophilia, or lust. However, I also believe that pedophilia and homosexuality are two different things." (Pages 7-8). See also: "The Gay Priest Problem", CatholicCulture.org (June 3, 2002).

[13] On page 220 we find a reference to Nicholas Lash who is a liberal ex-priest (somewhat younger than the late Charles Davis) and who is a writer for The Tablet in England. On page 210 Gustavo Gutiérrez gets an honorable mention, while the more obscure Joan M. Nuth is quoted on page 274. It is Berry's choice to exclude Henri DeLubac, Hans Urs von Balthasar, Joseph Ratzinger (on page 372 he is called a "moral fundamentalist") and Bernard Lonergan, or for that matter Manlio Simonetti, Olegario Gonzalez de Cardedal, and Maximilian Heim. In fairness, however, Avery Dulles is mentioned briefly on page 284 and J.N.D. Kelly on page 368 n. 38 gets a footnote.

[14] American moralists William E. May, Joseph Boyle, Benedict Ashley and Germain Grisez are excluded.

[15] For a withering criticism of Weigel, see pages 392-393, n. 2.

[16] Although Sandro Magister and Jerry Filteau are more centrist. (page 39)

[17] On page 220 Chittister is blandly referred to as "the prolific Benedictine lecturer from Erie, Pennsylvania...."

[18] As well as the ever-controversial John Cornwell and James Carroll. (page 368)

[19] Israel's ambassador to the Holy See, Mordechai Lewy, in June 2011 referred to the "silence" of Pius XII. "Israel ambassador salutes Pope Pius XII for sheltering Jews from Holocaust", CatholicCulture.org (June 24, 2011).

Robert Graham said that Jews begged Pius to keep his mouth closed. If he spoke out it would only make things worse as in August 1942 when the Dutch bishops issued a pastoral letter against the Nazi racial laws. Hundreds of innocent Jewish-Catholics were immediately arrested and sent to Auschwitz in reprisal, including Edith Stein. See Robert A. Graham, "How to Manufacture a Legend: the Controversy Over the Alleged Silence of Pope Pius XII in World War II." Pius should be credited for what he did, not for what he did not say: "The story of how 11 thousand Roman Jews were saved by Pius XII" Vatican Insider (June 26, 2011)

[20] There is no way to verify this source genre. See the author's explanation on page 361.

[21] On page 360 the author says: "The pope cannot be an authentic voice for peace, affirm the dignity of human life, and preach the values of a greener planet if people see that Vatican justice is a farce. Will justice sink beneath the weight of popes forever bound to the hubris of apostolic succession? Questions hand; a hungry people wait." Striking at apostolic succession, even his version of it, is striking at the heart of Catholicism.

[22] J.B. is inaccurate to translate the older Good Friday prayer as "treacherous." We commonly understood it to say "perfidious" ‒ a somewhat unhappy way of formerly expressing the religious difference between Judaism and Christianity. (page 3)

[23] "The number of Catholic parishes in the United States fell from 19,620 in 1990 to 17,784 in 2010 ‒ a drop of about 10% ‒ according to a study conducted by the Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate."

[24] Dr. Jeffrey A. Mirus discusses this strategy of the Bishop of Cleveland.

[25] J.B. leaves out the notorious case of Miami. See "The Catholic Church's Secret Gay Cabal", by Brandon K. Thorp (Gawker.com; July 28, 2011), and "Report claims wide homosexual network in Miami archdiocese" (CatholicCulture.org, July 29, 2011).

[26] Page 263.

[27] Page 253. After Berry published, the chief financial officer of the Archdiocese of Philadelphia was fired in a new scandal similar to Cleveland's.

[28] Page 16.

[29] Pages 10, 11, 225-226, 351.

[30] Page 159. Berry claims Maciel represents the "theology of prosperity." Rather, Maciel seems to have been the stooge of a business empire emanating from Monterrey, Mexico. Or so it is said.

[31] See pages 392-393.

Reverend Brian Van Hove, S.J., is the Chaplain to the Religious Sisters of Mercy of Alma, Michigan.

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