| || ||
Tolkien's Faith | An Interview with Paul E. Kerry, editor of The
Ring and the Cross: Christianity and The Lord of the Rings | by Sean McGuire |
Ignatius Insight | May 23, 2011
Dr. Paul E. Kerry is
an associate professor of history at Brigham Young University, research associate at Corpus Christi College and visiting fellow
at the Woolf Institute, Cambridge. He specializes in German, Jewish and intellectual history. J.R.R. Tolkien is the latest of
several scholarly subjects into which he has plunged. Past works include Thomas
Carlyle Resartus: Reappraising Carlyle's Contribution to the Philosophy of
History, Political Theory, and Cultural Criticism and Friedrich Schiller: Playwright,
Poet, Philosopher, Historian.
He is the editor of the recently published
collection, The Ring and the
Cross: Christianity and The Lord of the Rings (Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2010), which
includes essays by Joseph Pearce, Bradley J. Birzer, John Holmes, and several
other Tolkien experts. Dr. Kerry is also co-editor, with Sandra Miesel, of the
book, Light Beyond All Shadow:
Religious Experience in the Work of J. R. R. Tolkien (Fairleigh Dickinson University
Press, August 2011). He recently spoke with Sean McGuire (who blogs at The Room of
Shattered Glass) about The Ring and the Cross, Tolkien's faith, and the great popularity of The Lord of the Rings.
McGuire: In your Introduction, you mention a lot of questions scholars
have covered in the "Is-Tolkien-A-Christian" debate. How did you frame this
debate and why?
Kerry: Well, I would first point out that the question is not "Is Tolkien a Christian"
– the overwhelming majority of scholars understand that Tolkien was a
devout Catholic who believed in the truth, beauty, majesty, and salvific power
of the Roman Catholic Church. The question is to what extend did Catholicism
inform his fictional writings, particularly The Lord of the Rings, his masterpiece.
As a student at Oxford I was a member of the C.S. Lewis Society that drew many
Christians of varying denominations together, as well as those who simply
enjoyed his writings. The thought was a glimmer at the time, but I wondered
about Tolkien's writings and their relation to Christianity. In the case of
Lewis it is more obvious and thus less contested. Sometimes that leads to
complacency and Lewis's fiction is relegated to Christian allegory, and we do
not see his formidable mind and skills as a writer as clearly as we should.
My long-time colleague Dr Michael Ward, an Anglican clergyman, wrote Planet
Narnia (Oxford, 2008) that has been justly praised as an interpretative breakthrough
in Lewis scholarship on precisely this point. Michael, in fact, was president
of the Oxford C.S. Lewis Society when I was a member and we remained in touch
when I was a visiting fellow at the University of Cambridge when he was a
chaplain at St. Peter's College. In fact, I helped him set up a speaking
engagement at Princeton University and I recall when we conversed thinking that
I would like The Ring and Cross and Light Beyond All Shadow to reflect the same judicious scholarship that
he had employed in Planet Narnia.
I wanted to provide a forum where scholars interested in the
subject could articulate their ideas and present them with civility. I think
that the exchange in the book between Professors Hutton and Agøy illustrates
McGuire: Is it the case that most Americans are too religiously illiterate to
Kerry: Certainly I
have had colleagues at the University of Cambridge tell me that for subjects
such as medieval Art History or Chaucer it is increasingly difficult to find
students who understand Christian motifs or allusions or who can catch biblical
references. On the other hand, this is why they and others find it refreshing
to work with bright students who are Catholic, Mormon, Orthodox, Evangelical,
Jewish, et cetera, who know the Bible and have been taught that proposition
that faith and reason are not mutually exclusive.
Another angle on your question might lead to a different way to look at Tolkien
and readers who are receptive to him. It may be precisely a religious
sensibility that makes Tolkien so compelling for so many, including Americans.
In speaking with my colleagues at Villanova University—a university engaged
in Augustinian renewal—they note that many times Catholic students are
unaware that Tolkien was in fact Catholic, but that once they realize this new,
deeper ways of understanding his and other major Catholic contributors to what
Goethe called "world culture" become apparent.
Yet, readers of other faiths or those who profess none have read
and enjoyed Tolkien. But isn't that a part of what Catholicism is able to do,
that it is be universal? Certainly the translations into which Tolkien has been
translated attest that there is an enormous intercultural appeal.
McGuire: What do you admire the most about J.R.R. Tolkien's work?
Kerry: Scholars want to communicate their ideas and Professor Tolkien found a way to
build his scholarship in incredibly creative and imaginative ways into his
fiction and found a way to communicate that about which he cared so much to so
many. Some historians who are now taking a more literary approach to writing
history are, I think, finding a way to do something similar.
I have also been struck by how Tolkien's writing exercises an interdisciplinary
appeal on scholars, not only those in English departments, but (also) those in
history and political science, philosophy and theology, and others are taking
Tolkien's contributions more seriously.
McGuire: What's one question you would like to ask Tolkien if he was still alive
Kerry: As a professor who teaches university students for a living, I would want to
ask about his views on how to go about that today. What would he consider the
aims of a university education to be, and how might one achieve those aims?
McGuire: Who is one of your favorite moment in The Lord of the Rings? And why?
Kerry: In Book I, in the chapter "A Knife in the Dark", Frodo is seriously wounded by
one of the Black Riders. After his time in the House of Elrond his grievous
injury seems to be healed. Yet, much later, after (the) defeat of Sauron and
when Frodo appears to be settled into some kind of domestic tranquility, he
tells Sam, twice, that he is "wounded" and that this is the kind of wound that
would never heal. Soon thereafter, of course, he leaves for the Grey Havens,
stating a truth that Tolkien would have known all too well after experiencing
the two World Wars.
Those who sacrifice to save us and preserve our lives and ways of life, whether
they be soldiers, sailors, submariners, or airmen, or those our parents,
teachers, religious leaders, and so forth, often cannot fully enjoy that which
they (give) so much to preserve. It may come as a surprise to those readers,
perhaps readers whose experience in life thus far has taught them that
everything is recoverable, all can be made anew, that we can spring back in
perfect health from any setback, that there are wounds from which we on our own
cannot fully recover.
I think that here one has the chance to see Tolkien's European experience, as
well as Catholic vision, shine through.
McGuire: What element of Tolkien's work do you think most misleads people into false
Kerry: Tolkien was a philologist and sometimes his use of a word is specific, rooted
in the history of a word, and may differ from the popular usage of a word. For
example, there is a brief discussion of "wizardy" in the chapter "On the Road
to Isengard" in The Lord of the Rings that seems to play on this distinction.
Sometimes this might entail a difference in popular perception between a
European and American readership. Recall that The Hobbit was published in 1937, the
same year as the Walt Disney animated film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, was screened. Although both
were aimed at children's audiences (recall not only the origins of The
that it was nominated for a Carnegie Medal), see the vastly different
conception of dwarves.
McGuire: Any memorable moments while working on the Tolkien essays?
Kerry: I certainly did have some learning moments. This was my first time to work on a
scholarly project with professional writers. I learned much more about that
world and the challenges that they face. Although scholars face publisher
pressure, they are paid for their university teaching and this pays the bills
and puts food on the table.
Writers live by every stroke of the keyboard and if their writing does not
sell, they do not eat or they have second or third jobs. I appreciate very much
the contributions from the professional writers in this volume because academic
presses are not for-profit endeavors, and so this means that they essentially
donated their time and effort to the volume and for that I am profoundly
I have not had the pleasure of meeting all of the contributors to The Ring
and the Cross but when I have had the occasion it has been illuminating. For example, I
recall taking Professor John Holmes, from the Franciscan University of
Steubenville, on a tour of Cambridge Colleges and learning so much from him
about Tolkien from a medieval perspective. We also reflected on how Tolkien
might have felt as a Roman Catholic as he worked at Oxford, an institution like
Cambridge where many of the ancient colleges and chapels would have been begun
as Catholic foundations.
One of the most memorable experiences I had whilst working on this project was
a discussion I had with Princeton University students at Mercer House and
Wiggins House, Opus Dei-affiliated foundations. The students were lively,
bright, engaged, and not shy to ask hard questions about the project.
Related Ignatius Insight Articles:
The Presence of Christ in The Lord of the Rings Peter J. Kreeft
Tolkien, Man and Myth: A Literary Life by Joseph Pearce | Reviewed by Jill Kriegel
The Ladies of the Ring | Sandra Miesel
Looking For An Inklings Adventure | An Interview with Dr. David C. Downing
Why Fantasy? | Richard Purtill
Evangelizing With Love, Beauty and Reason | An Interview with Joseph Pearce
The Powers of Fantastic Fiction | An Interview with Tim Powers
Sean McGuire is a freelance writer, and a student at Benedictine College. He blogs at The Room of
If you'd like to receive the FREE IgnatiusInsight.com
e-letter (about every 1 to 2 weeks), which includes regular updates
about IgnatiusInsight.com articles, reviews, excerpts, and author appearances,
please click here to sign-up today!
| || || |